Background Immunosenescence is associated with several adjustments in innate and adaptive immune system cells. of cytokines. Conclusions Our outcomes support the hypothesis that ageing isn’t connected with a intensifying pro-inflammatory cytokine creation by all leukocytes but instead with specific fluctuations in the rate of recurrence of cytokine-producing cells throughout existence. Electronic supplementary materials The online edition of this content (doi:10.1186/s12979-017-0084-5) contains supplementary materials which is open to Caspofungin Acetate authorized users. Keywords: Ageing Cytokine Adaptive immune system cells Innate immune system cells Background Before 10 years a new method of the analysis of ageing surfaced from the info gathered from centenarians. The idea of successful or healthful ageing originates from these research and it removed the misunderstandings between ageing and age-related disorders. Relating to these research immunosenescence will not involve a simple unidirectional decline in all functions but rather a remodeling of biological systems during the ageing process. In this sense many immunological activities are well preserved in the healthy elderly and they may compensate for other functions that are impaired [1-3]. Ageing is associated with several alterations in the phenotype repertoire and activation status of leukocytes as well as in the cytokine profile produced by these cells. This complex age-related remodeling of the immune system is responsible for the profound changes within the cytokine network [3-8]. Cytokines are a key component in the communication among immune cells and they are responsible for differentiation proliferation and survival of lymphoid cells playing an important role in immune responses and inflammation. Age-related changes in the cytokine network is responsible for a chronic proinflammatory status known as “inflammageing” [3 5 Inflammageing has been described as a combination of dysfunctional immunity with a state of low grade chronic inflammation and it has been considered as an universal phenomenon associated with frailty and morbidity in the elderly [3 8 This progressive increase in pro-inflammatory status is one of the major characteristics of immunosenescence [12-14]. Several ageing-associated immunological alterations have been already described in medical literature mostly in the T-cell compartment. They include involution of the thymus reduction in the number of na?ve T-cells with a parallel increase of oligoclonaly expanded CD4+ T-cells with a memory phenotype reduced potential to produce IL-2 and loss of CD28 expression [15-17]. Adaptive immunity undergoes severe deterioration with age and this represents the main problem in the elderly. However evidence accumulated over the last decade supports the hypothesis that ageing has also a profound impact on innate immunity which in turn markedly influences health and longevity of older people [3 18 In the Caspofungin Acetate complex scenario of immunosenescence it has been generally accepted that some aspects of innate immunity e.g. phagocytosis and natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity remain largely unaffected [19-21]. Innate immune responses are more resistant to change and NK-cells are well preserved in healthy Rabbit polyclonal to ARL16. elderly subjects. In fact there is an age-related increase in CD16+ CD57- cells with high cytotoxicity capacity. This increase in NK cells has been correlated with successful ageing [21-24]. Our group reported a significant increase in frequency of CD16+ IFN-γ+?NK-cells in aged individuals in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Brazil who were protected from schistosome contamination. Therefore a high frequency of IFN-γ+?NK-cells correlated with “healthy ageing” in endemic areas . Studies in aged mice showed functional decline of monocytes and macrophages low expression level of Toll-like receptors from activated splenic and peritoneal macrophages and altered secretion of several chemokines Caspofungin Acetate and cytokines [25 26 Reduced class II major histocompatibility in aged Caspofungin Acetate macrophages also contribute to impaired proliferative response of activated peripheral T-lymphocytes [20 27 In humans it has been described that although the elderly preserve the number and phagocytic capacity of neutrophils other functional.