Background Despite comparatively lower socioeconomic status (SES) immigrants tend to have

Background Despite comparatively lower socioeconomic status (SES) immigrants tend to have lower body weight and weaker SES gradients relative to U. their parents during adolescence) and body mass index (BMI) measured in adulthood varied by immigrant generation. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were adjusted for age sex race/ethnicity and immigrant generation. Results Among first generation immigrants although parental education was not associated with adult BMI an immigrant’s own education attainment was inversely associated with BMI (β=?2.6 kg/m2; standard error (SE)=0.9 p<0.01). In addition upward educational mobility was associated with lower adult mean BMI than remaining low SES (β= ?2.5 kg/m2; SE=1.2 p<0.05). In contrast among U.S.-born respondents college education in adulthood did not attenuate the negative association between parental education and adult BMI. Although an SES gradient emerged in adulthood for immigrants remaining low LAL antibody SES from adolescence to adulthood was not associated with loss of health advantage relative to U.S.-born respondents of U.S.-born parents of similar SES. Conclusion Immigrants were able to translate higher SES in adulthood into a lower adult mean BMI regardless of childhood SES whereas the consequences of lower childhood SES had a longer reach even among the upwardly mobile U.S.-born. immigrants appear to be equally mobile with some groups suffering marginalization and blocked opportunities for mobility.[16 17 Remaining low SES into adulthood may be associated with worsening health and a corresponding loss of health advantage for immigrants through limited access to resources and greater exposure to adverse threats to health. On the other hand Combretastatin A4 if weak SES gradients are a function of healthy behaviors across the SES spectrum and if immigrants carry these behaviors into Combretastatin A4 adulthood these practices may continue to act as a buffering mechanism against the adverse health effects of sustained low SES into adulthood. Using prospective population-based data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) we used respondent and parental surveys to operationalize SES: parental education Combretastatin A4 (childhood SES) and educational attainment of the Add Health respondents in adulthood (adult SES). We evaluated: 1) whether the association between SES mobility categories and adult BMI varied by immigrant generation; and 2) whether remaining low SES into adulthood was associated with loss of a BMI health advantage among immigrants. METHODS Data Add Health is a nationally representative school-based study of U.S. adolescents (n=20 745 age 11-20 years) in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-95 (wave I) followed into adulthood. Data were collected under protocols approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The study used a multistage stratified school-based clustered sampling design supplemented with special minority samples. Details regarding the survey design and sampling frame have been previously described.[18] Of the 20 745 adolescents surveyed in wave We 14 738 participants in marks 7-11 were re-interviewed at wave II in 1996 (age: 12-21 years). At wave III in 2001-02 (age: 18-27 years; n=15 197 Combretastatin A4 and wave IV in 2008-09 (age: 24-33 years; n=15 701 all wave I respondents were eligible for follow-up no matter wave II participation. nonresponse analysis indicated no significant bias from attrition across waves.[19] Put Health contains large numbers of adolescents in immigrant families making it well-suited for analyses of immigrant generation. Our analytic sample was drawn from the wave IV probability sample-respondents interviewed in waves I and IV and who experienced post-stratification longitudinal sample weights (n=15). The correlation between self-reported and measured height and excess weight ideals in Add Health was high (r=0.92).[20] However since correlations were slightly lower among 1st generation immigrants (r=0.89) we opted to primarily use measured values. None of the respondents exceeding level capacity were first generation immigrants. For descriptive purposes adults having a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were classified as overweight and obese respectively.[21] SES.