Several cell-based therapies are being analyzed on the preclinical level presently. a variety of labeling strategies, imaging modalities, as well as the merits/demerits of every technique are outlined. Furthermore, particular examples of the usage of MSCs and imaging in cancers therapy are given. Finally, present restrictions and upcoming outlooks with regards to the translation of different imaging strategies in clinics are discussed. molecular imaging, Drug delivery, Superparamagnetic iron oxide Core Tip: There is substantial evidence of the potential of cell therapies in treating various diseases including cancers. Molecular imaging has been actively used for decades to assess cellular processes, evaluate the properties of certain drugs, screen compound libraries, and visualize the fate of cells. This review aimed to confirm whether noninvasive Efna1 cell tracking in combination with molecular imaging could be used as a tool for the development of mesenchymal stem cell-based cancer treatment. To that end, the following aspects are outlined in the text: labeling approaches, imaging modalities, advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, and scope and limitations of the various imaging approaches. In conclusion, together with long-term monitoring, a lot can be learned with regard to the hidden potential of MSCs SKF-34288 hydrochloride as well as their variable fate in humans. INTRODUCTION Cell-based therapy and in vivo imaging Cell therapies are becoming increasingly popular because of their ability to restore or replace damaged tissues, thereby directly impacting disease progression. Cell-based therapies can be developed with the use of any cell type including primary, stem, immune, or progenitor cells. Various cell-based therapies are presently being tested at the preclinical level. Some of them have even reached clinics (imaging has become an essential tool for monitoring disease status in longitudinal studies. It is exhaustively utilized to study cancerous diseases, autoimmune disorders, neurological diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. With the use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging, different biological processes including gene expression, protein trafficking, and cell migration/ homing/tumor infiltration can be visualized using high resolution. For studies involving animal models, readouts can be acquired with the use of the same animal over time, thereby reducing the sample size and discrepancies in measurements. Implementing imaging would be superior to other approaches including conventional histopathology, which might be the gold standard for animal studies. Nonetheless, histopathology is usually a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Errors can occur during the sampling of tissue and subsequent processing, thereby presenting a bias in studies. Small animals utilized for imaging is much faster and is better equipped to capture dynamic interactions between administered cells and its targets SKF-34288 hydrochloride without having to sacrifice the animal. On the other hand, histopathological analyses can uncover unique information that imaging platforms may overlook. In most cases, a combination of these two approaches is utilized to confirm the findings and overcome the flaws correlated with each modality. It is crucial to choose the optimal strategy for imaging, depending upon the research question you are trying to answer. SKF-34288 hydrochloride Some imaging modalities offer high resolution and others provide high sensitivity. The cost should also be taken into account because imaging platforms can be very expensive to set up. The strategy should be selected carefully to avoid possible interference with the animals physiology to acquire accurate as well as reproducible results. Some frequently utilized approaches including nuclear imaging, optical imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed later in this review along with their advantages and disadvantages. Preferably, an imaging tool should be highly specific and sensitive in tracking cell viability, cause minimal or no toxicity to cells, and allow long-term monitoring,.