DNA Methyltransferases

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[PubMed] [Google Scholar] 15. potential with the critical first step of aerobic glycolysis. Thus, our novel findings not only provide new insights into the complex role of YY1 in tumorigenesis but also indicate the potential of YY1 as a target for malignancy therapy irrespective of the p53 status. promoter. This metabolic ML 7 hydrochloride alteration toward glycolysis subsequently supported YY1\induced tumorigenesis. Importantly, we found that the regulatory effect of YY1 around the promoter, and, concomitantly, the function of YY1/GLUT3 axis in altering tumor cell metabolism and promoting tumorigenesis, occurs in a p53\impartial manner. Together, these results reveal an essential function of YY1 that links it to the entry of the tumor cell glucose GRK4 metabolism and provide a new perspective around the multiple functions of YY1 in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, these findings emphasize the potential of targeting YY1 for malignancy therapy, irrespective of the p53 status. 2.?MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Cell lines and cell culture HCT116WT and HCT116p53null cells were kindly provided by Dr Bert Vogelstein at The John Hopkins University or college Medical School25 and managed in McCoy’s 5A medium (Gibco) with 10% FBS (Biological Industries, Israel) and 1% penicillin\streptomycin. Mycoplasma contamination was routinely tested using the Mycoplasma Detection Kit\QuickTest (Biotool, Houston, TX, USA). Transfection was performed using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. For gene\silencing experiments, cells were transfected with indicated shRNA expression vectors. Puromycin selection was performed to eliminate untransfected cells 24?h after transfection. For test. For clinical samples and xenograft experiments, statistical analysis was performed using one\way ANOVA. A value of *significantly affected and expressions, while it only slightly affected expression and did not affect expression. In contrast, GLUT2, GLUT4, GLUT5 and GLUT7 could not ML 7 hydrochloride be detected in colon carcinoma cells. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates expression. A, The mRNA expression levels of family in HCT116WT cells transfected with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector against were examined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). B, The mRNA expression levels of in HCT116WT cells transfected with 2 shRNA vectors targeting different sites of (left) or overexpression vector (right) were examined using qPCR. C, The protein expression levels of GLUT3 in silencing, GLUT3 has the highest affinity to glucose.8, 11 To further confirm the regulatory effect of YY1 on GLUT3, we transfected 2 shRNAs targeting at different sites, as well as overexpression vector (Supplementary Figure?S1), and investigated their effects on expression. As shown in Figure?1B, silencing robustly reduced mRNA expression (left) in colon carcinoma cells, while overexpression clearly induced it (right). A similar tendency was observed for protein expression (Figure?1C). Thus, our results showed that YY1 might regulate GLUT3 at the transcriptional level. 3.2. Glucose transporter 3 is involved in Yin Yang 1\induced tumor ML 7 hydrochloride cell metabolic shift and proliferation Given that GLUT3 is critical for glucose transport into the cells, we next examined the glucose consumption in expression significantly ML 7 hydrochloride altered glucose consumption by tumor cells: silencing reduced the glucose consumption (Figure?2A, left), while overexpression robustly increased it (Figure?2A, right), suggesting that YY1 might enhance tumor cell glucose metabolism. Open in a separate window Figure 2 Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates tumor cells glucose metabolism. A, Relative glucose consumption in suppression robustly decreased the lactate production, while overexpression increased it (Figure?2B). Next, we investigated whether GLUT3 is involved in the YY1\mediated regulation of the metabolic shift. We cotransfected both shYY1 and overexpression vectors (pcGLUT3, Supplementary Figure?S2A) into HCT116WT cells and investigated their glucose consumption and lactate production. overexpression rescued the glucose consumption and lactate production suppressed by silencing.