Background L. papilla cells (hDPCs) more than treatment of 10?μM minoxidil. GSE significantly stimulated the expression of Ki-67 protein and the mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in hDPCs. Topical application of 1 1 0 GSE for 3?weeks promoted more significant hair growth on shaved C57BL/6 mice than did 5% minoxidil. The histological morphology of hair follicles demonstrated an active anagen phase with the induction of stem cell factor. GSE treatment significantly reduced the number of mast cells and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in mouse skin tissues. Conclusions These results exhibited that GSE promotes hair growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating growth factors and the cellular response. L Human dermal papilla cells Transforming growth factor beta 1 Background Hair loss is usually defined as a state in which hair does not exist at a typical area or less hair regrowth is usually observed in the area . In modern society hair loss occurs via genetic reasons as well as external factors such as environmental pollution work stress and alteration of hormone secretion . Minoxidil and finasteride are the only chemicals approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat hair loss [2-4]. However both these chemicals have serious adverse effects such as weight gain edema angina pectoris and hypogonadism in men and can lead to the birth of deformed baby if used by pregnant women. In efforts to find natural substances that AS-252424 are less toxic than minoxidil and finasteride previous studies have screened about 1 0 herb extracts for hair growth or hair loss-preventing effects [5 6 Among the natural extracts extract and extract were found to promote hair growth [5 6 with the antioxidant capacity of each extract being concluded as the contributing factor. All living organisms are constantly challenged by a diversity of AS-252424 exogenous- and endogenous stressors which induce biological responses to protect or adapt to stressors. The systemic biological response of the organism to stressor induces stress response through activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) by proinflammatory cytokines to increase circulating glucocorticoids and catecholamines . The growing body of evidence now supports that a wide range of neuropeptides neurotransmitters and neurohormones modulating systemic stress responses can indeed alter hair growth indicating that hair follicles represent an important target for stressors . Herb phenolics and flavonoid are recently of interest since these compounds possess antioxidation anti-inflammatory anti-microbial and anti-carcinogenic properties . L. which belongs to the Geraniaceae family AS-252424 of plants grows in China Japan Korea and some European countries. While it is used as a food ingredient in Russia and Turkey it has been used as a medicinal plant to treat diarrhea bacterial infection and cancer in Bulgaria Peru and Korea . The extract and phenolic compounds from AS-252424 showed high antioxidant capacity in 1 1 (DPPH) radical scavenging superoxide radical scavenging nitric oxide scavenging β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and reducing power . As several pharmacological studies of have shown anti-inflammatory anti-bacterial anti-diarrheal effect and anti-gastric ulcer action [12-15] it is widely used in cosmetic industry nowadays. Shim et al.  has reported that ethanol extract of L. decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide NFATC1 synthase (iNOS) in PMACI stimulated HMC-1 cells. IL-1β and COX-2 are known as potent inhibitors of hair growth in vitro and AS-252424 in vivo. Inui et al.  has also found that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) contributing to androgenic alopecia increases iNOS from occipital dermal papilla cells and suggested that iNOS and NO are downstream effectors of androgen receptors. However the effects of extract (GSE) on hair growth have not been studied so far. Therefore the study aimed to investigate whether the topical treatment of GSE could promote hair growth in vitro and in vivo models by regulating the expression of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Methods Preparation of GSE and HPLC.